英语论文写作常见语法错误(上)

作者:PaperPP  发布时间:2021-06-30 17:32:48

本文不会说标点符号和冠词用法,冠词用法较为复杂,暂且不提。下文中提到的语法错误,看着可能较为简单,但请勿掉以轻心,在列的都是在英语论文写作中常出现的问题。

1. 主语和动词的一致性(Subjectverb Agreement)

根据英文语法规则,每一个主语都必须与前后的相关动词保持一致。动词单数配主语的单数形式,动词复数配上主语的复数形式,就是这么简单。然而,大多数的同学会对动词单数的字尾 s 感到困惑。因为绝大多数的名词加上 s 或 es 后会变成复数,所以我们习惯将带有字尾 s 的字认为是复数。不过,动词加 s 的情况是不同的,有别于名词,动词现在时的单数形式才会加上 s 或 es。

单数形式:runs、sings、has、was;复数形式:run、sing、have、were,一定要记得,动词必须与名词一致,很多同学背单词的时候觉得很简单,但一下笔错误百出,平时在背单词时需要多加注意,多动手。下面看个范例:

错误:Serology for human herpes viruses I and II were negative.

正确:Serology for human herpes viruses I and II was negative.

错误:It is important to investigate what surgical patients wants to know of their treatment and how their individual characteristics and decisional preferences influences this information.

正确:It is important to investigate what the surgical patients want to know about their treatment and how their individual characteristics and decisional preferences influence this information.

2. 比较(Comparison)

比较级是形容词或副词的比较形态,例如:“Cancer is more dreadful than cholera.”比较级句子中常见的错误是 to、with 等介词的使用有误,以及进行比较的宾语有误。首先我们来了解compared to 和 compared with 间的差异。

► Compared to 用于比较不同级的项目。

例如:In appearance, ripples in ocean water can be compared to frosting spread on a cake.

► Compared with 用于比较同级的项目。

例如:Despite their different capacities, RAM can be compared with ROM in that both involve memory storage.

比较两个想法或实体时,只要用了形容词的比较形式,后面一定会跟着 than 一字。举例来说,smaller than、bigger than、faster than、higher than 等。许多非母语人士会使用“to”,而不是“than”,这样是不对的。“than”这个字的用途是连接比较中两物件的连词。其实很简单,每当看见形容词以“-er”结尾时,一定要接着用“than”。下面提出一些参考例句:

错误:Modulation of the potential barrier size of the ZnS tubes with and without exposure to C2H5OH was comparatively smaller to that of the ZnO–ZnS core–shell rods.

正确:Modulation of the potential barrier size of the ZnS tubes with and without exposure to C2H5OH was comparatively smaller than that of the ZnO–ZnS core–shell rods.

错误:The phagocytic index of haemocytes incubated with the hotwater extract was significantly higher to that of the control group.

正确:The phagocytic index of haemocytes incubated with the hotwater extract was significantly higher than that the control group.

英语论文写作常见语法错误(上)

3. 负向迁移(Negative Transfer)

负向迁移是指使用了双重否定(double negatives)表达不正确的对比。简单来说,如 however、but、though、although 等从属连词,已表达出与下方概念相对比的语境,因此,一个句子中只要有以上的从属连词之一便已足够。非母语人士一般会误用 because⋯so 及 although⋯but 这样成对的句型,但因为成对的两个词有极为相似的意义,同时使用两个词会让句子变得累赘。正因如此,一个句子中选择其中一词来使用即可。举例来说:

错误:Because I am curious about history, so I love reading books on the Renaissance era.

正确:Because I am curious about history, I love reading books on the Renaissance era.

错误:Although I understand Cantonese, but I cannot converse fluently with people from Hong Kong.

正确:Although I understand Cantonese, I cannot converse fluently with people from Hong Kong.

► Because 及 although 是从属连词。使用这类连词会让一个从句附属另一个从句。So 及 but 是从属连词,功用是连接同等的元素,可用来连接单字和单字、短语和短语、从句和从句。

• I am curious about the Golden Age of Mexican cinema, so I listen to Pedro Infante’s music.

• I listen to Bollywood music, but I do not understand Hindi.

4. Using 与 By using 的用法

将 using 加上 by 的用法有时候属于典型的冗余用法,这是因为 by 和 using 的意思是相同的,但是有时候为了使句子的语意清楚,同时使用两个词仍有其必要性。庆幸的是,只要记得以下两条规则,就有办法可以处理这个状况:

1. 遇到名词时,加上 by 可避免语意不清。例如:“This paper provides several examples that demonstrate how to create applications by using the set of EWF application programming interfaces (APIs).”

2. 遇到动词时,拿掉 by 可避免冗余。例如:“Simple and reproducible fingerprints of complex genomes can be generated using single arbitrarily chosen primers and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).”

5. 限定从句和非限定从句(Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses)

在英文中,that 和 which 两词分别有特定的含义,两者常常会不正确地混用,我们来了解一下,如何在句子中正确地使用这两者。句子中的起始部分若是包含特定的短语或从句,传达了对句子整体很重要的资讯时,该句的剩余部分即可用that 连接。例如:“The government that rose to power last year has been successful in combating terrorist activities.”此句中,我们将重点放在“去年建立的政府(the government rose to power last year)”。现在,换个情境,如果短语或从句想传达的资讯是额外附加的或不是这么重要的情况下,会以 which 插入句子中,紧跟在所描述的短语或从句的之前或之后。例如:“The government, which rose to power last year, has been successful in combating terrorist activities.”此句中,主旨是政府成功地对抗了恐怖主义,句子中的其余部分提供给读者的是关于政府的额外资讯。因此,如果您想要传达某些特定的资讯或是强调主旨的相关细节时,使用 that 做连接。还有一点很重要的是,that 之前不能有逗号。当您想要传达额外的资讯时,就用 which,同时以逗号夹住 which 从句,但这需视 which 在句子中出现的位置而定。

• The cat that used to sit on the fence ran away.

• Yesterday, I saw the dress that I want to wear next weekend.

第一句中,说话者意图将句中提到的那只常坐在篱笆上的猫与其他猫区隔开来,特指那只爱坐篱笆上的猫跑掉了。在第二句中,说话者意图将她想穿的那套洋装与其他洋装区隔开来,讲述她昨天看到的正是她想要穿的那套洋装。

6.冗余(Redundancy)

冗余指的是不需要的重复,有些作者会反覆其词,重复某些字眼,以此强化自己的写作。不过,这样的作法有时候反而对易读性有害,甚至可能改变语意。例如:“unexpected surprise”这里“surprise(惊喜)”表示“unexpected(无预警的)”,您无法预测惊喜,所以在选词时要选适合该句子的用词。下述的例句提供常见的冗余错误。

错误:Disaster prevention and avoidance systems are crucially important.

正确:Disaster prevention systems are crucial.

► 此句中,crucial 和 important 的意思都一样,而修正版传达的意思正刚好。

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