英语论文写作常见语法错误(中)

作者:PaperPP  发布时间:2021-06-30 21:28:48

下文中提到的语法错误,看着可能较为简单,但请勿掉以轻心,在列的都是在英语论文写作中常出现的问题。学明白这些内容,对自己的英语文本理解能力和翻译能力都有极大帮助。

1. 修饰语(Modifiers)

英文句中的语意有很大一部分是由单词的顺序所决定的,而修饰语可以是单词、短语或从句,功能是在句子中提供描述。这些修饰语的位置很重要,要是放在不对的位置会改变语意。

例如:“I need a leave on Thursday because I am marrying my daughter.”此句中,问题点在于“I am marrying my daughter”这个短语,意味着该说话者将要与他的女儿结婚,这样实在很不恰当。他真正的意思是,他需要出席女儿的婚礼,所以他需要请假。此句的正确版本应该是“Because my daughter is getting married on Thursday, I need a leave.”

以下列出三类修饰语常会遭到误用:

错置修饰语(Misplaced Modifiers)

错置修饰语需要移至句中的他处,以避免可能的混淆。

看看这个例句:

“Simone put the bracelet on her arm that she bought yesterday.”

此句中,意思成了 Simone 昨天买了一只手臂,但其实她买的是一只臂镯。正确的句子应该是:“Simone put the bracelet that she bought yesterday on her arm.”。记得,要解决错置修饰语的问题,就要将修饰语移至要修饰的词旁。

垂悬修饰语(Dangling Modifiers)

垂悬修饰语指的是句子中不包含所修饰的词时,也就是句子中缺乏目标的标题词,无法明确指出修饰语修饰的是句子中的哪个词。

例如:“The waiter finally served us after sitting at the table for nearly an hour.”

此句中的问题在于读者不明白到底是谁坐在桌子旁。句子的正确版本应该是:“The waiter finally served us after we were sitting at the table for nearly an hour.”要解决垂悬修饰语的问题,加上修饰语所修饰的特定词就可以了。

歧义修饰语(Squinting Modifiers)

歧义修饰语,依字面上来看,意思是修饰语会让读者无法判断真正修饰的部分,这类错误会使修饰语即可修饰前面的词,也可修饰后面的词。例如:“The store that had the big sale recently went bankrupt.”此句的意思有两种可能:

1. 最近办过大特卖的那家店铺倒闭了。(The store that recently had a big sale went bankrupt.)

2. 办过大特卖的那家店铺最近倒闭了。(The store that had a big sale went bankrupt recently.)

因此,依照“recently”摆放的位置,句意会有所变化。将词摆放在适当的位置上,对传达正确的讯息来说是很重要的。

2. 错词(Wrong Word)

有时因为词跟词之间的发音太过相似,写作中常会用错,如 their、there、they’re 的发音相同,但各自的语意都不相同。缩写也可能造成问题,should’ve 听起来和 should of 很像,但这其实是 should have 的缩写。

错误:You’re semester is difficult because your taking too many classes.

You’re 意指 you are,而后面的 your 是所有格,这两个词在此句中的用法都错了。

正确:Your semester is difficult because you’re taking too many classes.

这个句子中的You’re 及 your 在句中的用法才正确。

缺少平行结构(Lack of Parallel Structure)

同样重要的想法于表列中或比较中呈现时,应该使用同样的语法形态,不平行结构会令读者混淆,因为在表列中用上不同的语法形态时,意味着表列中的项目不属于同类。

错误:Biology is my major because the subject is challenging, interesting, and excites me.

► “Excites me”与表列中的其他项目的语法结构不同,读起来相当别扭。

正确:Biology is my major because the subject is challenging, interesting, and exciting.

► 表列中的三个项目在结构上对等且平行。

错误:Biology is my major because the subject is challenging, interesting, and I plan on being a veterinarian.

► “I plan on being a veterinarian”与表列中的其他项目的语法结构不同,读起来相当别扭。

正确:I plan on being a veterinarian, so biology is my major. I also chose biology because I find it challenging and interesting.

► “I plan on being a veterinarian”似乎比表列中的另两项还要来得重要,因此可以将这段讨论拆成两句。

3. 错误的平行结构(Faulty Parallelism)

务必在表达一系列的两个以上相符想法或项目时,使用语法对等的句子元素。

错误:The candidate’s goals include winning the election, a health program, and education.

正确:The candidate’s goals include winning the election, enacting a national health program, and improving the educational system.

4. 句子不完整(Fragments)

顾名思义,就是不完整的句子,是由独立从句的一部分所组成。

错误:The University will have to raise tuition next year. Because the state government will not raise taxes to support education.

► “Because the state government will not raise taxes to support education”有主语和动词,但是“because”让句子形成了附属从句,无法自己表达完整的意思,需要与主要从句连接才能形成完整句。

正确:The University will have to raise tuition next year because the state government will not raise taxes to support education.

► 该附属从句成为主要从句的一部分了。

错误:The inevitable laying off of faculty and staff.

正确:The laying off of faculty and staff is inevitable.

► 此句不再是不完整句,因为有了主语“the laying off of faculty and staff”和动词“is inevitable”。

英语论文写作常见语法错误(中)

5. 模糊代词指涉(Vague Pronoun Reference)

代词必须有清楚指涉的主语。当代词可以指涉超过一个的主语或是该代词指涉的主语没有点明时,就会产生所谓的模糊代词指涉。

错误:If your students don’t do well on their quizzes, they must not be very good.

► “They”是个模糊的代词,不确定在句中指涉的是students 或是 quizzes。

正确:Your quizzes must not be very good if your students don’t do well on them.

► 本句中,they 明确指涉 quizzes,而非 students。缺乏代词一致性(Lack of Pronoun Agreement)使用代词要准确、一致。代词必须与数字、性别、主语类型一致。

错误:Each member of the rowing team had to set their alarm for three in the morning.

► “Each member”是单数,代词也必须是单数。

正确:Each member of the rowing team had to set her alarm for three in the morning.

► 名词和代词皆为单数。

6. 不清楚的代词指涉(Unclear Pronoun Reference)

代词必须要清楚地指涉限定的指涉对象名词,使用 it、they、that、these、those、which 时要小心,以免造成混淆。

错误:Einstein was a brilliant mathematician. This is how he wasable to explain the workings of the universe.

正确:Einstein, who was a brilliant mathematician, used his quantitative ability to explain the workings of universe.

错误:Because Senator Martin is less interested in the environment than in economic development, she sometimes neglects it.

正确:Because of her interest in economic development, Senator Martin sometimes neglects the environment.

7. 不必要的时态转换(Unnecessary Tense Shift)

动词时态要保持一致,如果句子以现在时起头,不要随意地转换成过去时。有时候可能需要转换时态,反映时间的变化,但是非必要的转换可能会使读者混淆,搞不清写作内容的时间关系。

错误:Someone pulled the fire alarm yesterday, so we get out of class without taking the quiz.

► 此句中,没有明确的理由就从过去时“pulled”转换成现在时“get”。

正确:Someone pulled the fire alarm yesterday, so we got out of class without taking the quiz.

► 因为没有明确的理由转换时间,所以两个动词都是过去时。

8. 一致性错误(Agreement Errors)

名词与代词的一致性

代词包括 he、she、they、his、hers 等字,可以指涉前面的名词,或代替名词。代词应该与所代表的名词保持一致,复数名词应该使用 they 作为代词,所有格代词为 their。

• The Beatles wanted their music to convey a message, so they created music and lyrics that others would remember.

单数名词应该使用对应性别的单数代词和单数所有格代词。

• (阳性)Jerry wanted to spend his weekend camping, but he knew he’d have to talk Linda into it.

• (阴性)Linda had wanted to spend her weekend at the spa, but she knew Jerry wanted to go camping.

• (中性)The raccoon got into the ice chest and cut its paw on a sharp knife.

补充:部分跨考同学可能不知道英语名词中四种不同类别的“性”:阳性、阴性、通性和中性。概念较为简单,具体可以自己百度查询了解。

集合名词

上述的简单规则会在导入集合名词和集合代词后变得更加复杂,集合代词包括 everyone、all、everybody、committee、staff。当一个词指涉的是集体中的每个个体时,如 everybody、everyone、each,则使用单数动词和单数代词。

• Everyone in this store is buying chips.

• Everybody needs to bring his or her book to the meeting.

当一个字将个体视为一个团体时,如 committee、staff、faculty等,使用单数动词和代词。

• The committee is making a decision.

当一个字指涉的是为许多个体组成的团体时,如 all、some等,使用复数动词和代词。

• Some people are going to the movies.

• All people listen to their own type of music.

在非正式写作和演说中,有时候也会用在性别中性的情况下,they 可以作为单数的中性代词,如 everyone 一样。

• Everyone has their own opinion.

许多人认为这样的用法是错的,并且偏好使用 his、her 或his/her。要处理这个状况,可以将名词或代词转为复数。

• We all have our own opinions.

动词时态

有时候写作者会在段落之中改变动词的时态,因而导致混淆,为了避免混淆,应确保动词时态的一致。

错误:The method we use is interview and survey. We found that most people voted for the candidate whose name is familiar, regardless of the candidate’s political leanings.

正确1:The method we use is interview and survey. Our findings indicate that people vote for the candidate whose name is familiar, regardless of the candidate’s political leanings.

正确2:The method we used was interview and survey. We found that most people voted for the candidate whose name was familiar, regardless of the candidate’s political leanings.

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